In today’s digital age, businesses often find themselves overwhelmed by the sheer volume of documents they must manage. From internal memos to client contracts, the flow of paperwork seems never-ending.

But what happens when a critical file goes missing or you’re unsure which version of a report is the latest? These challenges can lead to inefficiencies, errors, and even costly missteps.

Utilizing the document lifecycle is one way to navigate these issues. So, let’s dive into document lifecycles, why understanding them is important, and what a typical lifecycle encompasses.

What Is the Document Lifecycle?

The document lifecycle refers to the stages a document goes through from its initial creation to its eventual end, whether that’s archiving or disposal. It’s a systematic process that starts when a document is first produced and progresses through phases like reviewing, editing, using, and storing.

This lifecycle ensures that documents are managed efficiently and helps businesses keep track of their information, ensuring it remains organized, accessible, and secure throughout its existence.

Why Is It Important to Understand the Document Lifecycle?

The document lifecycle isn’t just about individual files. It’s about how a company manages information as a whole. This includes everything from the tools we use (like Microsoft Word for document creation) to the systems we rely on for storing and retrieving information (like content management systems).

By understanding the document lifecycle, businesses can ensure that their important files are created, stored, used, and discarded in an efficient and organized manner. This saves time and reduces the risk of errors, mishaps, and even document loss.

A clear grasp of the document lifecycle can help optimize business processes. For instance, a project management team can better allocate resources and time when they know exactly where a document is in its lifecycle and what needs to happen next.

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Document Lifecycle Stages

Each document might require its own variation of the lifecycle depending on the type of document, the information it contains, and legal regulations regarding that information. However, most document lifecycles will often follow a common structure.

The document lifecycle framework typically contains these stages:


This is where the document starts. Typically, a document is either created from scratch or existing documents are received from an outside source (customer, vendor, client, etc.).

The choices made in the creation phase—from the document’s format to the tools used—can impact the entire lifecycle.

Depending on the type of document, this initial version could serve as a first draft that requires editing and fact-checking.

Review and Approval

In most business processes, the document undergoes a review phase. This might involve multiple rounds of edits, feedback, and revisions. This is vital for ensuring the document meets necessary standards and is error-free.

This phase is also typically when digital files become metatagged, classified, and indexed for future search and retrieval.

Depending on the document’s nature and the organization’s structure, several approvals might be required. For example, a marketing piece might need approval from the design and legal teams before it’s finalized.


Secure storage is paramount, especially for sensitive information. Whether stored in physical file cabinets or digital form using document management systems (DMS), organized storage makes retrieval easier and more efficient.

In the digital age, cloud-based solutions and content management systems have become go-to options for many organizations. They not only provide safekeeping but also enable easy access and sharing capabilities. An added advantage of digital storage is that it often comes with version control features, ensuring everyone accesses a document’s most recent version.

Publication or Distribution

Once approved and stored, the document is ready to be published or distributed.

If it’s an internal document with business-critical information, it might be shared with relevant departments or team members.

External documents, such as marketing materials or public reports, might be uploaded to a company website, sent to a printer, or emailed to a client.

At this point, ensuring that the document reaches the intended audience in the correct format and through the appropriate channels is crucial.

Usage & Retrieval

The usage phase encompasses the period during which the document is actively referred to and used.

This could be a policy manual that employees consult, a sales brochure shared with potential clients, or a project management timeline that guides a team’s work.

This could also include authorized users retrieving valuable data from documents needed to perform their jobs. For instance, your legal team might need to look up personal information about a client or customer to fill out paperwork or to contact them with questions.

Effective document controls are crucial here. They ensure that only authorized individuals can access and change the document. This is especially true when using personally identifiable information or other information regulated by specific legal guidelines.

Updating and Maintenance

Over time, information can become outdated. Periodic reviews of documents are essential to ensure they remain current and relevant.

In this phase, updates, amendments, or revisions might be made. For instance, an HR policy might be updated to reflect new labor laws.

Maintenance is closely linked to the document management processes, ensuring that the most up-to-date information is always available and obsolete data is archived or removed.

Archival or Destruction

All documents have a lifespan. When they’re no longer current or relevant, they enter the final stage of their lifecycle. Depending on the nature of the information and its importance, documents are either archived for potential future reference or destroyed.

Secure and verifiable destruction might be necessary for sensitive data, especially in industries with strict regulatory requirements. On the other hand, some documents might be archived in a secure storage environment, whether in a secure vault or a digital archive.

How Digitization and EDMS Can Help

Digitization involves a systematic approach to scanning paper documents and organizing these digital files for maximum accessibility and utility.

Digitizing physical documents into a digital format offers several benefits, including space efficiency, ease of access, and document preservation.

Integrating digital files into an Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) gives you access to collaboration and automation tools that can help improve and streamline the document lifecycle process.

For instance, an EDMS can help with:

  • Creation: Tools integrated within the EDMS, such as word processing apps, can help with direct document creation.
  • Storage and Retrieval: An EDMS often includes an intuitive and structured filing system. This can include automated, AI-driven tagging, categorizing, and metadata creation. This can help streamline the storage, search, and retrieval processes.
  • Collaboration: Contemporary EDMS platforms come equipped with tools for collaborative editing, tracking of changes, and internal communication and messaging.
  • Archival or Destruction: You can set automated rules that govern where the document goes and when. You can set these to follow industry standards and legal regulations. So, whether moving documents to archives or initiating secure destruction processes, an EDMS can ensure everything happens in compliance with relevant rules and regulations.

Best Practices for Document Lifecycle Management

Managing documents efficiently through every stage of their lifecycle is critical for businesses. As the influx of data grows, so does the complexity of handling, storing, and ensuring accessibility. By adhering to best practices, companies can streamline their document management processes and ensure consistent handling of vital information.

Some helpful best practices for document lifestyle management include:

  • Ensure secure document storage and backup
  • Perform regular document life cycle audits
  • Provide training and education to teams
  • Utilize version control options
  • Use consistent file naming conventions
  • Implement retention policies
  • Adopt a clear collaboration protocol
  • Stay updated on compliance regulations


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